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Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow

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1 Teatralnaya Sq.
Bolshoi Theatre is one of the largest theatres of opera and ballet in Russia and one of the most important ones in the world. The complex of buildings of the theater is located in the heart of Moscow, at the Theatre Square. More than 800 works were performed on the stage of the Bolshoi Theatre, including the first Russian operas and operas by celebrities such as Verdi, Wagner, Bellini, Donizetti and other composers. The world premieres of operas by Tchaikovsky, Rachmaninov, Prokofiev and Arensky were performed there. The great Rachmaninoff conducted there. In March 1736, the provincial prosecutor, Prince Peter Urusov began construction of the theatre building on the right bank of the Neglinka River, the corner of Petrovka Street. Then the theatre was called Petrovsky. But Peter Urusov  failed to finish the construction. The building burnt down. After the fire, the construction of the theatre building was finished by his companion, the English entrepreneur Michael Medox. It was the first professional theatre. The repertoire of the theatre included drama, opera and ballet performances. The Petrovsky Theatre was opened December 30, 1780. It burnt in fire in 1805. The new building, constructed under the direction of Carlo Rossi on Arbat Square, also burnt down in 1812. In 1821-1825 a new theatre building was constructed by Alexander Mikhailov in the same place. The construction was supervised by architect O. Bo ve. The building was significantly increased in size, that’s why it was named Bolshoi Theatre that means grand. After a fire in March 1853, the building was restored under direction of architect A. Kavos. During the reconstruction after the fire, the building was completely rebuilt and decorated with white stone portico with eight columns. The building of the theatre is one of the best examples of Russian classical architecture. The building is crowned with the world famous bronze quadriga of Apollo by Peter Klodt. There was set a gypsum two-headed eagle — the national emblem of Russia at the front of the building. The nine muses with Apollo were placed on the ceiling of the auditorium. Thanks to the creativity of Albert Kavos, the building fits perfectly into the surrounding architectural structures. Five tiers of the auditorium can accommodate 2,100 spectators. According to its acoustic properties, it is considered one of the best in the world. In 2005, the reconstruction of the theater started, and after 6 years of colossal work October 28, 2011 there was the opening of the main stage of the country. The area of the Bolshoi Theater was doubled and reached 80,000 square meters, there appeared the underground part, and there was restored unique acoustic system of the hall. The scene now has a capacity of six-storey building, all the processes where are computerized. The murals were renovated in the White Foyer. The Jacquard fabrics and tapestries in the Round Hall and the Imperial Foyer were restored within 5 years by 156 artists from all over Russia. The Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow is one of the world's major theaters. The theatre played a significant role in the Russian in the development of musical and stage school and Russian national art, including the famous Russian ballet.
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