The exact date of Kazan foundation is unknown. According to the opinions of some historians it was founded in the second half of the 13th century, but other specialists believe that the city was founded in 1177. It is located on the banks of the Volga River. Since 1438 the city was the capital of Kazan Khanate, and in 1552 it was conquered by Russian tsar Ivan the Terrible. Nowadays Kazan is the capital of the Tatarstan republic. Kazan is a large industrial center of the region. It witnessed many important historical events. For example, here the leader of the Bolsheviks party Vladimir Lenin started his activities. Kazan is a very interesting city from the architectural point of view. Here one can see old buildings, which have been carefully preserved till nowadays: the Kremlin with various constructions of the 16th-18th centuries, the Peter and Paul cathedral, the Marjani mosque.