Eastern Europe and Northern Asia, bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean. Largest country in the world in terms of area; Mount Elbrus is Europe's tallest peak in Europe.
60 00 N, 100 00 E
total: 17,075,200 sq km
water: 79,400 sq km
land: 16,995,800 sq km
total: 19,990 km
border countries: Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km, China (southeast) 3,605 km, China (south) 40 km, Estonia 294 km, Finland 1,313 km, Georgia 723 km, Kazakhstan 6,846 km, North Korea 19 km, Latvia 217 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia 3,485 km, Norway 196 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km, Ukraine 1,576 km
ranges from humid continental in much of European Russia through steppes in the south; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast.
broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions.
lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Elbrus mountain 5,633 m
wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber.
People in Russia
Population: 144,978,573 (July 2002 est.)
Ethnic groups: Russian 81.5%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 3%, Chuvash 1.2%, Bashkir 0.9%, Belarusian 0.8%, Moldavian 0.7%, other 8.1%
Religions: Russian Orthodox, Muslim, other.
Languages: Russian, other.
Russian Government type
49 oblasts (, 21 republics*, 10 autonomous okrugs, 6 krays, 2 federal cities, and 1 autonomous oblast)
Russia Day, 12 June (1990)
adopted 12 December 1993
based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red
Russia is struggling to establish a modern market economy, modernize its industrial base, and maintain strong economic growth.
Ports and harbors
Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinsky, Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan, De-Kastri, Indigirskiy, Kaliningrad, Kandalaksha, Kazan, Khabarovsk, Kholmsk, Krasnoyarsk, Lazarev, Mago, Mezen', Moscow, Murmansk, Nakhodka, Nevelsk, Novorossiysk, Onega, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, Rostov, Shakhtersk, Saint Petersburg, Sochi, Taganrog, Tuapse, Uglegorsk, Vanino, Vladivostok, Volgograd, Vostochniy, Vyborg
2,743 in total (2001)
Places of tourist and cultural interest
Moscow, Saint Petersburg and suburbs, Golden Ring cities, main centers on Volga river, Black Sea and Caucasus mountains resorts...