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Location: Eastern Europe and Northern Asia, bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean. Largest country in the world in terms of area; Mount Elbrus is Europe's tallest peak in Europe.
Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 100 00 E

total: 17,075,200 sq km


water: 79,400 sq km


land: 16,995,800 sq km

Land boundaries:

total: 19,990 km


border countries: Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km, China (southeast) 3,605 km, China (south) 40 km, Estonia 294 km, Finland 1,313 km, Georgia 723 km, Kazakhstan 6,846 km, North Korea 19 km, Latvia 217 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia 3,485 km, Norway 196 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km, Ukraine 1,576 km

Coastline: 37,653 km
Climate: ranges from humid continental in much of European Russia through steppes in the south; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast.
Terrain: broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions.
Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m


highest point: Elbrus mountain 5,633 m

Natural resources: wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, natural gas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber.
People in Russia

Population: 144,978,573 (July 2002 est.)


Ethnic groups: Russian 81.5%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 3%, Chuvash 1.2%, Bashkir 0.9%, Belarusian 0.8%, Moldavian 0.7%, other 8.1%


Religions: Russian Orthodox, Muslim, other.


Languages: Russian, other.

Russian Government type: federation
Capital: Moscow
Administrative divisions: 49 oblasts (, 21 republics*, 10 autonomous okrugs, 6 krays, 2 federal cities, and 1 autonomous oblast)
National holiday: Russia Day, 12 June (1990)
Constitution: adopted 12 December 1993
Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red
National Emblem:
double eagle
Symbol: a bear
Economy-overview: Russia is struggling to establish a modern market economy, modernize its industrial base, and maintain strong economic growth.
Ports and harbors: Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinsky, Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan, De-Kastri, Indigirskiy, Kaliningrad, Kandalaksha, Kazan, Khabarovsk, Kholmsk, Krasnoyarsk, Lazarev, Mago, Mezen', Moscow, Murmansk, Nakhodka, Nevelsk, Novorossiysk, Onega, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, Rostov, Shakhtersk, Saint Petersburg, Sochi, Taganrog, Tuapse, Uglegorsk, Vanino, Vladivostok, Volgograd, Vostochniy, Vyborg
Airports: 2,743 in total (2001)
Places of tourist and cultural interest: Moscow, Saint Petersburg and suburbs, Golden Ring cities, main centers on Volga river, Black Sea and Caucasus mountains resorts...