The Diamond Fund of the Russian Federation is a part of the State Fund of Precious Metals and Precious Stones of the Russian Federation, which is a collection of unique nuggets of precious metals and unique gemstones that have historical and artistic value, and a collection of unique jewelry and other items made of precious metals and precious stones. The collection started to be formed in the XVIII century, when Peter I issued a special decree on the preservation of things, owned by the state, thus recognizing that the most significant of which must be owned not only by the royal family but by the whole of Russia. Precious objects of the state regalia, insignia, and secular accessories of many generations of Russian tsars until 1914 were kept in a special Diamond Cabinet of the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg. After the First World War, the values were hastily evacuated to the Moscow Kremlin, where they were kept for about eight years in the basement. In 1922, the Commission on the identification and examination of decorative and jewelry art confirmed the unique historical and artistic value of the objects of the former Diamond Cabinet and identified the need to study and preserve the collection in the State Repository of Values. The Diamond Fund Exhibition was opened in 1967. Due to its popularity by the decision of the government, the exhibition became permanent. The Diamond Fund contains a unique collection of jewelry and diamonds. Throughout its history, it was enriched with rare gems, insignia, and other precious goods. A great contribution to the collection made an experimental laboratory of jewelry performing a restoration of the destroyed values, including the Greater and Lesser imperial crowns and other subjects of the imperial family. Thus, more than one hundred items were included in the presenting exhibition.